After the 1960’s, a series of Ba’th party rules comes to power (Amin al-Hafiz, Nureddin al-Atassi, and Ahmad al-Khatib) and introduces a new type of nationalism that skirts the interests of those who want to be part of a pan-Arabic solution with those who want an independent Syria. There is a need by other Arab countries to form a pan-Arabic solution that involves the Palestinians, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq, but these Ba’thi leaders gear their intentions toward a Syria that is the center of Arabism. What this means, in actuality, is the emphasis is toward Syria to be independent rather than promote Arabism.
These Ba’thi rulers also begin to develop a sectarian and secular society that is ruled at the top by an Alawi minority. The Alawi’s use sectarian solidarity to establish stability within the country. What is important is that the Alawi’s are considered a heterodoxical faith, or a type of Islamic faith that is at odds with the official position. This is very dangerous for the Ba’thi leaders because their political and social standing is a liability, so they counter their diminished religious ranking by instituting a deep sectarian and secular society. Ba’thi leaders during this period even take a radical approach toward secularism. But beginning in the 1970’s under Hafiz al-Assad, the father of the current Syrian government president, the Ba’th party changes course.